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Sie sind hier: Home / Gesundheitsthemen / Mikronährstoffe / Lexikon Biosubstanzen / Aminosäuren / L-Carnitin / Verzeichnis der Quellenangaben
Verzeichnis der Quellenangaben

Quellenverzeichnis

1. Rebouche CJ. Carnitine. In: Shils ME, Shike M, Ross AC, Caballero B, Cousins RJ, eds. Modern Nutrition in Health and Disease. 10th ed. Philadelphia: Lippincott, Williams & Wilkins; 2006:537-544.
2. Fraenkel G, Friedman S. Carnitine. Vitam Horm. 1957;15:73-118.
3. Seim H, Eichler K, Kleber H. L(-)-Carnitine and its precursor, gamma-butyrobetaine. In: Kramer K, Hoppe P, Packer L, eds. Nutraceuticals in Health and Disease Prevention. New York: Marcel Dekker, Inc.; 2001:217-256.
4. De Grandis D, Minardi C. Acetyl-L-carnitine (levacecarnine) in the treatment of diabetic neuropathy. A long-term, randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled study. Drugs R D. 2002;3(4):223-231.Opens external link in new window (PubMed)
5. Rebouche CJ. Kinetics, pharmacokinetics, and regulation of L-carnitine and acetyl-L-carnitine metabolism. Ann N Y Acad Sci. 2004;1033:30-41. Opens external link in new window(PubMed)
6. Rebouche CJ. Carnitine function and requirements during the life cycle. Faseb J. 1992;6(15):3379-3386. Opens external link in new window(PubMed)
7. Rebouche CJ. Ascorbic acid and carnitine biosynthesis. Am J Clin Nutr. 1991;54(6 Suppl):1147S-1152S. Opens external link in new window(PubMed)
8. Lombard KA, Olson AL, Nelson SE, Rebouche CJ. Carnitine status of lactoovovegetarians and strict vegetarian adults and children. Am J Clin Nutr. 1989;50(2):301-306. Opens external link in new window(PubMed)
9. Rebouche CJ, Chenard CA. Metabolic fate of dietary carnitine in human adults: identification and quantification of urinary and fecal metabolites. J Nutr. 1991;121(4):539-546. Opens external link in new window(PubMed)
10. Gross CJ, Henderson LM, Savaiano DA. Uptake of L-carnitine, D-carnitine and acetyl-L-carnitine by isolated guinea-pig enterocytes. Biochim Biophys Acta. 1986;886(3):425-433.Opens external link in new window (PubMed)
11. Rebouche CJ, Lombard KA, Chenard CA. Renal adaptation to dietary carnitine in humans. Am J Clin Nutr. 1993;58(5):660-665. Opens external link in new window(PubMed)
12. Foster DW. The role of the carnitine system in human metabolism. Ann N Y Acad Sci. 2004;1033:1-16. Opens external link in new window(PubMed)
13. McGrane MM. Carbohydrate metabolism-synthesis and oxidation. In: Stipanuk MH (ed). Biochemical and Physiological Aspects of Human Nutrition. Philadelphia: W.B. Saunders Co; 2000:158-210.
14. Olson AL, Nelson SE, Rebouche CJ. Low carnitine intake and altered lipid metabolism in infants. Am J Clin Nutr. 1989;49(4):624-628. Opens external link in new window(PubMed)
15. American Academy of Pediatrics, Committee on Nutrition. Soy protein-based formulas: recommendations for use in infant feeding. Pediatrics. 1998;101(1):148-152. Opens external link in new window(PubMed)
16. Stanley CA. Carnitine deficiency disorders in children. Ann N Y Acad Sci. 2004;1033:42-51. Opens external link in new window(PubMed)
17. Nezu J, Tamai I, Oku A, et al. Primary systemic carnitine deficiency is caused by mutations in a gene encoding sodium ion-dependent carnitine transporter. Nat Genet. 1999;21(1):91-94. Opens external link in new window(PubMed)
18. Kerner J, Hoppel C. Genetic disorders of carnitine metabolism and their nutritional management. Annu Rev Nutr. 1998;18:179-206. Opens external link in new window(PubMed)
19. Pons R, De Vivo DC. Primary and secondary carnitine deficiency syndromes. J Child Neurol. 1995;10 Suppl 2:S8-24.Opens external link in new window (PubMed)
20. Gregory MJ, Schwartz GJ. Diagnosis and treatment of renal tubular disorders. Semin Nephrol. 1998;18(3):317-329. Opens external link in new window(PubMed)
21. Calvani M, Benatti P, Mancinelli A, et al. Carnitine replacement in end-stage renal disease and hemodialysis. Ann N Y Acad Sci. 2004;1033:52-66. Opens external link in new window(PubMed)
22. Winter SC, Szabo-Aczel S, Curry CJ, Hutchinson HT, Hogue R, Shug A. Plasma carnitine deficiency. Clinical observations in 51 pediatric patients. Am J Dis Child. 1987;141(6):660-665. Opens external link in new window(PubMed)
23. Food and Nutrition Board IoM. Vitamin C. Dietary Reference Intakes for Vitamin C, Vitamin E, Selenium, and Carotenoids. Washington D.C.: National Academy Press; 2000:95-185. (National Academy Press)
24. Costell M, O'Connor JE, Grisolia S. Age-dependent decrease of carnitine content in muscle of mice and humans. Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 1989;161(3):1135-1143. Opens external link in new window(PubMed)
25. Hagen TM, Ingersoll RT, Wehr CM, et al. Acetyl-L-carnitine fed to old rats partially restores mitochondrial function and ambulatory activity. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1998;95(16):9562-9566. Opens external link in new window(PubMed)
26. Liu J, Head E, Gharib AM, et al. Memory loss in old rats is associated with brain mitochondrial decay and RNA/DNA oxidation: partial reversal by feeding acetyl-L-carnitine and/or R-alpha -lipoic acid. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2002;99(4):2356-2361.Opens external link in new window (PubMed)
27. Hagen TM, Liu J, Lykkesfeldt J, et al. Feeding acetyl-L-carnitine and lipoic acid to old rats significantly improves metabolic function while decreasing oxidative stress. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2002;99(4):1870-1875. Opens external link in new window(PubMed)
28. Sethumadhavan S, Chinnakannu P. L-carnitine and alpha-lipoic acid improve age-associated decline in mitochondrial respiratory chain activity of rat heart muscle. J Gerontol A Biol Sci Med Sci. 2006;61(7):650-659.Opens external link in new window (PubMed)
29. Sundaram K, Panneerselvam KS. Oxidative stress and DNA single strand breaks in skeletal muscle of aged rats: role of carnitine and lipoicacid. Biogerontology. 2006;7(2):111-118. Opens external link in new window(PubMed)
30. Sethumadhavan S, Chinnakannu P. Carnitine and lipoic Acid alleviates protein oxidation in heart mitochondria during aging process. Biogerontology. 2006;7(2):101-109. Opens external link in new window(PubMed)
31. Savitha S, Panneerselvam C. Mitochondrial membrane damage during aging process in rat heart: potential efficacy of L-carnitine and DL alpha lipoic acid. Mech Ageing Dev. 2006;127(4):349-355.Opens external link in new window (PubMed)
32. Savitha S, Sivarajan K, Haripriya D, Kokilavani V, Panneerselvam C. Efficacy of levo carnitine and alpha lipoic acid in ameliorating the decline in mitochondrial enzymes during aging. Clin Nutr. 2005;24(5):794-800.Opens external link in new window (PubMed)
33. Kumaran S, Panneerselvam KS, Shila S, Sivarajan K, Panneerselvam C. Age-associated deficit of mitochondrial oxidative phosphorylation in skeletal muscle: role of carnitine and lipoic acid. Mol Cell Biochem. 2005;280(1-2):83-89. Opens external link in new window(PubMed)
34. Kumaran S, Subathra M, Balu M, Panneerselvam C. Supplementation of L-carnitine improves mitochondrial enzymes in heart and skeletal muscle of aged rats. Exp Aging Res. 2005;31(1):55-67. Opens external link in new window(PubMed)
35. Muthuswamy AD, Vedagiri K, Ganesan M, Chinnakannu P. Oxidative stress-mediated macromolecular damage and dwindle in antioxidant status in aged rat brain regions: role of L-carnitine and DL-alpha-lipoic acid. Clin Chim Acta. 2006;368(1-2):84-92. Opens external link in new window(PubMed)
36. Lopaschuk G. Regulation of carbohydrate metabolism in ischemia and reperfusion. Am Heart J. 2000;139(2 Pt 3):S115-119. Opens external link in new window(PubMed)
37. Davini P, Bigalli A, Lamanna F, Boem A. Controlled study on L-carnitine therapeutic efficacy in post-infarction. Drugs Exp Clin Res. 1992;18(8):355-365. Opens external link in new window(PubMed)
38. Iyer R, Gupta A, Khan A, Hiremath S, Lokhandwala Y. Does left ventricular function improve with L-carnitine after acute myocardial infarction? J Postgrad Med. 1999;45(2):38-41. Opens external link in new window(PubMed)
39. Iliceto S, Scrutinio D, Bruzzi P, et al. Effects of L-carnitine administration on left ventricular remodeling after acute anterior myocardial infarction: the L-Carnitine Ecocardiografia Digitalizzata Infarto Miocardico (CEDIM) Trial. J Am Coll Cardiol. 1995;26(2):380-387. Opens external link in new window(PubMed)
40. Colonna P, Iliceto S. Myocardial infarction and left ventricular remodeling: results of the CEDIM trial. Carnitine Ecocardiografia Digitalizzata Infarto Miocardico. Am Heart J. 2000;139(2 Pt 3):S124-130.Opens external link in new window (PubMed)
41. Tarantini G, Scrutinio D, Bruzzi P, Boni L, Rizzon P, Iliceto S. Metabolic Treatment with L-Carnitine in Acute Anterior ST Segment Elevation Myocardial Infarction. A Randomized Controlled Trial. Cardiology. 2006;106(4):215-223. Opens external link in new window(PubMed)
42. Trupp RJ, Abraham WT. Congestive heart failure. In: Rakel RE, Bope ET, eds. Conn's Current Therapy. 54th ed. New York: W.B. Sunders Company 2002:306-313.
43. Rizos I. Three-year survival of patients with heart failure caused by dilated cardiomyopathy and L-carnitine administration. Am Heart J. 2000;139(2 Pt 3):S120-123. Opens external link in new window(PubMed)
44. Anand I, Chandrashekhan Y, De Giuli F, et al. Acute and chronic effects of propionyl-L-carnitine on the hemodynamics, exercise capacity, and hormones in patients with congestive heart failure. Cardiovasc Drugs Ther. 1998;12(3):291-299. Opens external link in new window(PubMed)
45. Study on propionyl-L-carnitine in chronic heart failure. Eur Heart J. 1999;20(1):70-76. Opens external link in new window(PubMed)
46. Cacciatore L, Cerio R, Ciarimboli M, et al. The therapeutic effect of L-carnitine in patients with exercise-induced stable angina: a controlled study. Drugs Exp Clin Res. 1991;17(4):225-235. Opens external link in new window(PubMed)
47. Cherchi A, Lai C, Angelino F, et al. Effects of L-carnitine on exercise tolerance in chronic stable angina: a multicenter, double-blind, randomized, placebo controlled crossover study. Int J Clin Pharmacol Ther Toxicol. 1985;23(10):569-572.Opens external link in new window (PubMed)
48. Iyer RN, Khan AA, Gupta A, Vajifdar BU, Lokhandwala YY. L-carnitine moderately improves the exercise tolerance in chronic stable angina. J Assoc Physicians India. 2000;48(11):1050-1052. Opens external link in new window(PubMed)
49. Bartels GL, Remme WJ, Pillay M, Schonfeld DH, Kruijssen DA. Effects of L-propionylcarnitine on ischemia-induced myocardial dysfunction in men with angina pectoris. Am J Cardiol. 1994;74(2):125-130. Opens external link in new window(PubMed)
50. Mills JL. Peripheral arterial disease. In: Rakel RE, Bope ET, eds. Conn's Current Therapy. 54th ed. New York: W.B. Sunders Company; 2002:340-343.
51. Brevetti G, Diehm C, Lambert D. European multicenter study on propionyl-L-carnitine in intermittent claudication. J Am Coll Cardiol. 1999;34(5):1618-1624. Opens external link in new window(PubMed)
52. Hiatt WR. Carnitine and peripheral arterial disease. Ann N Y Acad Sci. 2004;1033:92-98. Opens external link in new window(PubMed)
53. Brevetti G, Perna S, Sabba C, et al. Superiority of L-propionylcarnitine vs L-carnitine in improving walking capacity in patients with peripheral vascular disease: an acute, intravenous, double-blind, cross-over study. Eur Heart J. 1992;13(2):251-255. Opens external link in new window(PubMed)
54. Cipolla MJ, Nicoloff A, Rebello T, Amato A, Porter JM. Propionyl-L-carnitine dilates human subcutaneous arteries through an endothelium-dependent mechanism. J Vasc Surg. 1999;29(6):1097-1103. Opens external link in new window(PubMed)
55. Loffredo L, Marcoccia A, Pignatelli P, et al. Oxidative-stress-mediated arterial dysfunction in patients with peripheral arterial disease. Eur Heart J. 2007;28(5):608-612. Opens external link in new window(PubMed)
56. Guarnieri G, Situlin R, Biolo G. Carnitine metabolism in uremia. Am J Kidney Dis. 2001;38(4 Suppl 1):S63-67. Opens external link in new window(PubMed)
57. Hurot JM, Cucherat M, Haugh M, Fouque D. Effects of L-carnitine supplementation in maintenance hemodialysis patients: a systematic review. J Am Soc Nephrol. 2002;13(3):708-714. Opens external link in new window(PubMed)
58. Vesela E, Racek J, Trefil L, Jankovy'ch V, Pojer M. Effect of L-carnitine supplementation in hemodialysis patients. Nephron. 2001;88(3):218-223. Opens external link in new window(PubMed)
59. Clinical practice guidelines for nutrition in chronic renal failure. K/DOQI, National Kidney Foundation. American Journal of Kidney Diseases. 2000;35(6 Suppl 2):S1-140. Opens external link in new window(PubMed)
60. Eknoyan G, Latos DL, Lindberg J. Practice recommendations for the use of L-carnitine in dialysis-related carnitine disorder. National Kidney Foundation Carnitine Consensus Conference. Am J Kidney Dis. 2003;41(4):868-876. Opens external link in new window(PubMed)
61. Schreiber B. Safety of oral carnitine in dialysis patients. Semin Dial. 2002;15(1):71-72. Opens external link in new window(PubMed)
62. Sano M, Bell K, Cote L, et al. Double-blind parallel design pilot study of acetyl levocarnitine in patients with Alzheimer's disease. Arch Neurol. 1992;49(11):1137-1141. Opens external link in new window(PubMed)
63. Spagnoli A, Lucca U, Menasce G, et al. Long-term acetyl-L-carnitine treatment in Alzheimer's disease. Neurology. 1991;41(11):1726-1732. Opens external link in new window(PubMed)
64. Pettegrew JW, Klunk WE, Panchalingam K, Kanfer JN, McClure RJ. Clinical and neurochemical effects of acetyl-L-carnitine in Alzheimer's disease. Neurobiol Aging. 1995;16(1):1-4. Opens external link in new window(PubMed)
65. Thal LJ, Carta A, Clarke WR, et al. A 1-year multicenter placebo-controlled study of acetyl-L-carnitine in patients with Alzheimer's disease. Neurology. 1996;47(3):705-711. Opens external link in new window(PubMed)
66. Brooks JO, 3rd, Yesavage JA, Carta A, Bravi D. Acetyl L-carnitine slows decline in younger patients with Alzheimer's disease: a reanalysis of a double-blind, placebo-controlled study using the trilinear approach. Int Psychogeriatr. 1998;10(2):193-203. Opens external link in new window(PubMed)
67. Thal LJ, Calvani M, Amato A, Carta A. A 1-year controlled trial of acetyl-l-carnitine in early-onset AD. Neurology. 2000;55(6):805-810. Opens external link in new window(PubMed)
68. Moretti S, Alesse E, Di Marzio L, et al. Effect of L-carnitine on human immunodeficiency virus-1 infection-associated apoptosis: a pilot study. Blood. 1998;91(10):3817-3824. Opens external link in new window(PubMed)
69. Moretti S, Famularo G, Marcellini S, et al. L-carnitine reduces lymphocyte apoptosis and oxidant stress in HIV-1-infected subjects treated with zidovudine and didanosine. Antioxid Redox Signal. 2002;4(3):391-403. Opens external link in new window(PubMed)
70. Arrigoni-Martelli E, Caso V. Carnitine protects mitochondria and removes toxic acyls from xenobiotics. Drugs Exp Clin Res. 2001;27(1):27-49. Opens external link in new window(PubMed)
71. Scarpini E, Sacilotto G, Baron P, Cusini M, Scarlato G. Effect of acetyl-L-carnitine in the treatment of painful peripheral neuropathies in HIV+ patients. J Peripher Nerv Syst. 1997;2(3):250-252.Opens external link in new window (PubMed)
72. Osio M, Muscia F, Zampini L, et al. Acetyl-l-carnitine in the treatment of painful antiretroviral toxic neuropathy in human immunodeficiency virus patients: an open label study. J Peripher Nerv Syst. 2006;11(1):72-76. Opens external link in new window(PubMed)
73. Hart AM, Wilson AD, Montovani C, et al. Acetyl-l-carnitine: a pathogenesis based treatment for HIV-associated antiretroviral toxic neuropathy. Aids. 2004;18(11):1549-1560. Opens external link in new window(PubMed)
74. Herzmann C, Johnson MA, Youle M. Long-term effect of acetyl-L-carnitine for antiretroviral toxic neuropathy. HIV Clin Trials. 2005;6(6):344-350. Opens external link in new window(PubMed)
75. Jeulin C, Lewin LM. Role of free L-carnitine and acetyl-L-carnitine in post-gonadal maturation of mammalian spermatozoa. Hum Reprod Update. 1996;2(2):87-102. Opens external link in new window(PubMed)
76. Costa M, Canale D, Filicori M, D'Lddio S, Lenzi A. L-carnitine in idiopathic asthenozoospermia: a multicenter study. Italian Study Group on Carnitine and Male Infertility. Andrologia. 1994;26(3):155-159.Opens external link in new window (PubMed)
77. Vitali G, Parente R, Melotti C. Carnitine supplementation in human idiopathic asthenospermia: clinical results. Drugs Exp Clin Res. 1995;21(4):157-159. Opens external link in new window(PubMed)
78. Matalliotakis I, Koumantaki Y, Evageliou A, Matalliotakis G, Goumenou A, Koumantakis E. L-carnitine levels in the seminal plasma of fertile and infertile men: correlation with sperm quality. Int J Fertil Womens Med. 2000;45(3):236-240. Opens external link in new window(PubMed)
79. Lenzi A, Lombardo F, Sgro P, et al. Use of carnitine therapy in selected cases of male factor infertility: a double-blind crossover trial. Fertil Steril. 2003;79(2):292-300. Opens external link in new window(PubMed)
80. Lenzi A, Sgro P, Salacone P, et al. A placebo-controlled double-blind randomized trial of the use of combined l-carnitine and l-acetyl-carnitine treatment in men with asthenozoospermia. Fertil Steril. 2004;81(6):1578-1584. Opens external link in new window(PubMed)
81. Balercia G, Regoli F, Armeni T, Koverech A, Mantero F, Boscaro M. Placebo-controlled double-blind randomized trial on the use of L-carnitine, L-acetylcarnitine, or combined L-carnitine and L-acetylcarnitine in men with idiopathic asthenozoospermia. Fertil Steril. 2005;84(3):662-671. Opens external link in new window(PubMed)
82. Marconi C, Sassi G, Carpinelli A, Cerretelli P. Effects of L-carnitine loading on the aerobic and anaerobic performance of endurance athletes. Eur J Appl Physiol Occup Physiol. 1985;54(2):131-135.Opens external link in new window (PubMed)
83. Dragan GI, Vasiliu A, Georgescu E, Dumas I. Studies concerning chronic and acute effects of L-carnitine on some biological parameters in elite athletes. Physiologie. 1987;24(1):23-28. Opens external link in new window(PubMed)
84. Vecchiet L, Di Lisa F, Pieralisi G, et al. Influence of L-carnitine administration on maximal physical exercise. Eur J Appl Physiol Occup Physiol. 1990;61(5-6):486-490. Opens external link in new window(PubMed)
85. Siliprandi N, Di Lisa F, Pieralisi G, et al. Metabolic changes induced by maximal exercise in human subjects following L-carnitine administration. Biochim Biophys Acta. 1990;1034(1):17-21. Opens external link in new window(PubMed)
86. Brass EP. Supplemental carnitine and exercise. Am J Clin Nutr. 2000;72(2 Suppl):618S-623S. Opens external link in new window(PubMed)
87. Brass EP, Hoppel CL, Hiatt WR. Effect of intravenous L-carnitine on carnitine homeostasis and fuel metabolism during exercise in humans. Clin Pharmacol Ther. 1994;55(6):681-692. Opens external link in new window(PubMed)
88. Trappe SW, Costill DL, Goodpaster B, Vukovich MD, Fink WJ. The effects of L-carnitine supplementation on performance during interval swimming. Int J Sports Med. 1994;15(4):181-185. Opens external link in new window(PubMed)
89. Vukovich MD, Costill DL, Fink WJ. Carnitine supplementation: effect on muscle carnitine and glycogen content during exercise. Med Sci Sports Exerc. 1994;26(9):1122-1129. Opens external link in new window(PubMed)
90. Barnett C, Costill DL, Vukovich MD, et al. Effect of L-carnitine supplementation on muscle and blood carnitine content and lactate accumulation during high-intensity sprint cycling. Int J Sport Nutr. 1994;4(3):280-288. Opens external link in new window(PubMed)
91. Natali A, Santoro D, Brandi LS, et al. Effects of acute hypercarnitinemia during increased fatty substrate oxidation in man. Metabolism. 1993;42(5):594-600. Opens external link in new window(PubMed)
92. Brass EP. Carnitine and sports medicine: use or abuse? Ann N Y Acad Sci. 2004;1033:67-78. Opens external link in new window(PubMed)
93. Rebouche CJ. Carnitine. In: Shils ME, Olson JA, Shike M, Ross AC, eds. Modern Nutrition in Health and Disease. 9th ed. Philadelphia: Lippincott, Williams & Wilkins; 1999:505-512.
94. Brass EP, Hiatt WR. The role of carnitine and carnitine supplementation during exercise in man and in individuals with special needs. J Am Coll Nutr. 1998;17(3):207-215. Opens external link in new window(PubMed)
95. In: Hendler SS, Rorvik DR, eds. PDR for Nutritional Supplements. Montvale: Medical Economics Company, Inc.; 2001.
96. Cruciani RA, Dvorkin E, Homel P, Culliney B, Malamud S, Shaiova L, Fleishman S, Lapin J, Klein E, Lesage P, Portenoy R, Esteban-Cruciani N. L-carnitine supplementation for the treatment of fatigue and depressed mood in cancer patients with carnitine deficiency: a preliminary analysis. Ann NY Acad Sci 2004;1033:168-76.
97. Graziano F, Bisonni R, Catalano V, Silva R, Rovidati S, Mencarini E, Ferraro B, Canestrari F, Baldelli AM, De Caetano A, Giordani P, Testa E, Lai V. Potential role of levocarnitine supplementation for the treatment of chemotherapy-induced fatigue in non-anaemic cancer patients. Br J Cancer 2002;86:1854-7.
98. Mingrone G. Carnitine in type 2 diabetes. Ann NY Acad Sci 2004;1033:99-107.
99. De Gaetano A, Mingrone G, Castagneto M, Calvani M. Carnitine increases glucose disposal in humans. J Am Coll Nutr 1999;18:289-95.
100. Mingrone G, Greco AV, Capristo E, Benedetti G, Giancaterini A, De Gaetano A, Gasbarrini G. L-carnitine improves glucose disposal in type 2 diabetic patients. J Am Coll Nutr 1999;77-82.
101. Sima AAF, Calvani M, Mehra M, Amato A. Acetyl-L-carnitine improves pain, nerve regeneration, and vibratory perception in patients with chronic diabetic neuropathy: an analysis of two randomized placebo-controlled trials. Diabetes Care 2005;28:96-101.

 

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